. All of the following are common changes that occur in adulthood except
- midlife transitions.
- menopause.D. life reviews.
2. Sabrina, Ali, and Jasmine are discussing the differences between central route processing and peripheral route processing. Jasmine believes that peripheral route processing is what results when a person thoughtfully considers the issues and arguments involved in a persuasive argument. Ali says central route processing is when a person is persuaded by factors irrelevant or extraneous to the issue. Sabrina insists they’ve both got the definitions mixed up. Who is correct?
- Ali and Jasmine
- Sabrina and Ali
3. Prozac, Celexa, Zoloft, Paxil, and Lexapro are common drugs used to treat
- obsessive compulsive disorder.
4. Behavioral therapy would employ all of the following treatment techniques except
- aversive conditioning.
- exposure treatment.
- systematic desensitization.
5. What would be the best type of schedule to enforce a slow, steady response?
6. The startle reflex occurs when
- a baby’s cheek is rubbed and he/she seeks to nurse.
- a baby’s toes fan out when his/her foot is stroked.
- a baby flings out his/her arms and legs at a sudden noise.
- a baby cries when he/she hears a stranger’s voice.
7. Bandura’s Bobo Doll experiment demonstrated
- social identity.
- observational learning.
8. According to Maslow, we pass through a hierarchy, and the _______ stage is where people meet their highest potential.
- love and belonging
9. All of the following are valid methods of coping with stress except for
- changing your goals.
- learned helplessness.
- blue lining.
10. According to the textbook, the worst parents are those who are
11. How often is the following statement true? To successfully conduct experimental research, it’s important to have signed informed consents from participants.
- The statement is always true.
- The statement is true occasionally.
- The statement is true most of the time.
- The statement is false.
12. Insomnia affects approximately _______ percent of people and nearly _______ million people suffer from sleep apnea.
- 20; 30
- 30; 10
- 10; 20
- 30; 20
13. What are the purposes of dreams, according to Freud?
- Dreams for survival
- Unconscious wish fulfillment
14. According to the DSM-IV-TR and your text, several different mental disorders are currently recognized. Which symptoms and subcategories are correctly aligned?
- Dissociative disorders: multiple personality disorder, dissociative amnesia, and dissociative fugue
- Mood disorders: disorganized, paranoid, catatonic, and undifferentiated
- Somatoform disorders: generalized anxiety, panic, obsessive compulsive disorder, and PTSD
- Schizophrenia: hypochondriasis and conversion disorder
15. The endocrine system is a chemical communication system that sends messages throughout the body via the
16. The following are all correct types of memory except
17. All of the following are examples of types of influences we encounter except
18. There are different types of perspectives on psychological disorders. Which perspective is defined correctly?
- Behavioral, which assumes that there is a physiological cause to psychological disorders
- Cognitive, which assumes people’s thoughts and beliefs are central to psychological disorders
- Psychoanalytical, which assumes that behaviors are shaped by family, society, and culture
- Sociological, which assumes abnormal behaviors are learned
19. Jason and Tom are having a discussion about Kohlberg and Gilligan, who differed in their opinions.
Jason says Kohlberg’s theory centered on levels and morality, while Tom says Gilligan’s theory centered on women’s compassion and men’s justice. Who is correct?
- Both Jason and Tom are correct.
- Only Jason is correct.
- Neither Jason nor Tom is correct.
- Only Tom is correct.
20. Smoking even though you know there is a great chance of getting cancer is a good example of
- cognitive dissonance.
- social cognition.
1. A popular talk show host, jovial and sharp-witted as usual, outlines his views on the death penalty, taking time to consider both sides of the issue. As a long-time listener to that talk show, if you’re swayed to adopt the talk-show host’s point of view, it will probably be due to
- the character of the message.
- your tendency to employ peripheral route processing.
- your temperament and character.
- the medium of the message (radio).
2. Mandy has decided that she has no control over the aversive stimuli she encounters at work and at home day by day. Thus, she has given up trying to make her life better. Psychologists would say Mandy’s worldview illustrates
- emotion-focused coping.
- learned avoidant coping.
- problem-focused coping.
- learned helplessness.
3. The last stage in the GAS model of stress is
- flight or fight.
4. Aggressiveness builds up in people because of human nature. It can be safely expressed before it reaches a “boiling point” through the catharsis offered by aggressive sports and games. These kinds of ideas are associated with
- observational learning theories.
- frustration-aggression theory.
- social learning theories.
- instinct approaches to aggression.
5. According to your text, whether you’re persuaded by a message will primarily depend on which factor?
- The nature of the message as it relates to your temperament
- Your perception or understanding of the recipient of the message
- Your characteristics, including your personality and intelligence
- Whether you receive the message while at work or at home
6. In the “teacher-learner” experiments conducted by Stanley Milgram, ______ percent of the experimental subjects eventually applied the “lethal” 450-volt shock to the “learner.”
7. In the context of social cognition, what is the primary importance of schemas?
- They allow us to correctly identify the central traits of other people.
- They help us organize, store, and recall information about other people.
- They provide accurate and truthful information about social situations and other people.
- They help us differentiate good people from bad people.
8. On first meeting Ian Campbell from Edinburgh, Clark Mason, a native of Seattle, immediately decides that he and Ian have similar attitudes, feelings, and worldviews. Psychologists say this sort of thing illustrates the
- assumed-similarity bias.
- “birds of a feather” error.
- fundamental attribution error.
- self-serving bias.
9. In respect to the foundations of prejudice, social identity theory is associated with the concept of
- stereotypical discrimination.
- modern racism.
- self-fulfilling prophecy.
10. Which of the following statements regarding the nature of stress is true?
- Accumulating hassles may well lead to a sudden onset of PTSD.
- Psychophysiological disorders are primarily mental disorders.
- Cataclysmic events such as earthquakes are, inevitably, the most devastating stressors for most people.
- Continued exposure to stress is associated with the secretion of stress-related hormones.
11. As discussed in your textbook, the Implicit Association Test (IAT)
- requires people to openly express and reveal their latent prejudices.
- requires subjects to react to a series of black and white faces.
- is based on a culture-free questionnaire.
- has revealed that most people aren’t prejudiced.
12. Particular factors encourage people to be drawn into liking one another. In this context, the reciprocity of liking effect is primarily associated with
- physical attractiveness.
13. Jason and Julia are preparing for a quiz in Psychology 101. Jason recites four reasons for seeking out a social support network. Julia, who has top grades in the class, gives her nod of approval to all but one of Jason’s list. Which one is she most likely to reject?
- Being in a social support network helps a person learn how to win arguments.
- Support group membership can help a participant feel valued by others.
- Being a member of a social support network can help reduce a person’s stress levels.
- Group members can help a participant with practical things like finding a new job.
14. Which of the following statements best illustrates the concept of the halo effect?
- Observing that Lois is argumentative and abrasive, Leopold assumes she is a skilled liar.
- Grenville maintains that Hannibal’s faults lie not with the stars but within his character.
- On first meeting Sally, Harry recognized that he and Sally were like two peas in a pod.
- After Clark missed the foul shot, Coach Smart told him to try practicing for a change.
15. In general, the approach to stress embraced by psychoneuroimmunologists focuses on
- the brain and the body.
- the outcomes of stress.
- the brain and the immune system.
- psychological factors and the immune system.
16. The first stage in the GAS model of stress is
- alarm and mobilization.
- analyzing a stressor.
17. Four steps are involved in a person’s decision to offer assistance in an emergency situation. The third step is
- interpreting the event as requiring someone to offer assistance.
- assuming responsibility for rendering assistance.
- deciding how to help.
- appraisal of one’s skills and experience in dealing with emergencies.
18. Two psychology students are in a heated discussion about the nature of prejudice. Mavis insists that that when people get their identity from membership in a political action group, they will generally express ethnocentrism. Martin argues that with or without ethnocentrism, social identity based in group membership is inevitably associated with the demonization of minority groups. Who is correct?
- Mavis is correct.
- Neither Mavis nor Martin is correct.
- Both Mavis and Martin are correct.
- Martin is correct.
19. The foot-in-the-door technique and the that’s-not-all technique are persuasive tactics for gaining
- conformity.C. reciprocity.
20. In hearing a persuasive message, some people will evaluate it in terms of factors that have nothing to do with the content of the message. When this happens, psychologists speak of _______ route processing.